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How Stress Tears Us Apart

Source By: Unknown via Medical Express

Why is it that when people are too stressed they are often grouchy, grumpy, nasty, distracted or forgetful? Researchers from the Brain Mind Institute (BMI) at EPFL have just highlighted a fundamental synaptic mechanism that explains the relationship between chronic stress and the loss of social skills and cognitive impairment. When triggered by stress, an enzyme attacks a synaptic regulatory molecule in the brain. This was revealed by a work published in Nature Communications.

Carmen Sandi’s team went to look for answers in a region of the hippocampus known for its involvement in behavior and cognitive skills. In there, scientists were interested in a molecule, the nectin-3 cell adhesion protein, whose role is to ensure adherence, at the synaptic level, between two neurons. Positioned in the postsynaptic part, these proteins bind to the molecules of the presynaptic portion, thus ensuring the synaptic function. However, the researchers found that on rat models affected by chronic stress, nectin-3 molecules were significantly reduced in number…Read More>>

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Schizophrenia Not A Single Disease But Multiple Genetically Distinct Disorders

Source By: Jim Dryden via Medical Express

New research shows that schizophrenia isn’t a single disease but a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each with its own set of symptoms. The finding could be a first step toward improved diagnosis and treatment for the debilitating psychiatric illness. The research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis is reported online Sept. 15 in The American Journal of Psychiatry.

About 80 percent of the risk for schizophrenia is known to be inherited, but scientists have struggled to identify specific genes for the condition. Now, in a novel approach analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia, the research team has identified distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia…Read More>>

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Declining Condom Use Driving Sexually Transmitted Infections

Source by: Reema Rattan and Emil Jeyaratham via Medical Express

A fall in condom use across the population is driving strong growth in sexually-transmitted infections, according to one of the authors of an annual surveillance report released today.

Syphilis diagnoses are at the highest level ever recorded in Australia, while gonorrhoea rates continue to climb and the number of people dying from liver disease related to hepatitis C infection has more than doubled in the last ten years.

Associate professor David Wilson, head of the surveillance and evaluation program for public health at the Kirby Institute, which publishes the report, said one of the main causes for the growth in sexually-transmitted disease (STI) rates was declines in condom use…Read More>>

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Decreased Ability To Identify Odors May Predict Five-Year Mortality

Source By: Unknown via Medical Express

For older adults, being unable to identify scents is a strong predictor of death within five years, according to a study published October 1, 2014, in the journal PLOS ONE. Thirty-nine percent of study subjects who failed a simple smelling test died during that period, compared to 19 percent of those with moderate smell loss and just 10 percent of those with a healthy sense of smell.

The hazards of smell loss were “strikingly robust,” the researchers note, above and beyond most chronic diseases. Olfactory dysfunction was better at predicting mortality than a diagnosis of heart failure, cancer or lung disease…Read More>>

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The 10 Stuff-Ups We All Make When Interpreting Research

Source By: Will Grant and Rod Lambert via The Conversation

What do we actually mean by research and how does it help inform our understanding of things? Understanding what’s being said in any new research can be challenging and there are some common mistakes that people make.

Have you ever tried to interpret some new research to work out what the study means in the grand scheme of things?

Well maybe you’re smart and didn’t make any mistakes – but more likely you’re like most humans and accidentally made one of these 10 stuff ups…Read More>>

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3 Common Myths About Waterpipe Smoking

Source By: Dr Colin Mendelsohn via DrColinMendelsohn

Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly common among young people in some parts of Australia. However there are many misconceptions about waterpipe use.

In the waterpipe (hookah, shisha, narghileh), air is drawn through heated charcoal and perforated aluminum foil and then through moist tobacco (‘maassel’) in the head of the device. The resulting smoke bubbles through the water in the bowl and is inhaled by the smoker through a mouthpiece.

Young people are attracted by the taste of the flavoured, sweetened tobacco smoke, the novelty factor and the social experience of sharing with others…Read More>>

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Blood Test Spots Adult Depression

Source By: Tara Haelle via WebMD

A new blood test is the first objective scientific way to diagnose major depression in adults, a new study claims.

The test measures the levels of nine genetic indicators (known as “RNA markers”) in the blood. The blood test could also determine who will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy, one of the most common and effective treatments for depression, and could show whether the therapy worked, Northwestern University researchers report.

Depression affects nearly 7 percent of U.S. adults each year, but the delay between the start of symptoms and diagnosis can range from two months to 40 months, the study authors pointed out.

“The longer this delay is, the harder it is on the patient, their family and environment,” said lead researcher Eva Redei, a professor in psychiatry and behavioral sciences and physiology at Northwestern’s Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago…Read More>>

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Pneumonia Bacterium Leaves Tiny Lesions In The Heart, Study Finds

Source By: Unknown via Medical Express

The long-observed association between pneumonia and heart failure now has more physical evidence, thanks to research in the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The researchers found proof that Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, actually physically damages the heart.

The researchers found proof that Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, actually physically damages the heart. The bacterium leaves tiny lesions that researchers detected in mouse, rhesus macaque and human autopsy tissue samples.

“If you have had severe pneumonia, this finding suggests your heart might be permanently scarred,” said study senior author Carlos Orihuela, Ph.D., associate professor of microbiology and immunology at the UT Health Science Center San Antonio…Read More>>

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Talk Therapy—Not Medication—Best For Social Anxiety Disorder, Large Study Finds

Source By: Unknown via Medical Express

While antidepressants are the most commonly used treatment for social anxiety disorder, new research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is more effective and, unlike medication, can have lasting effects long after treatment has stopped.

Social anxiety disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by intense fear and avoidance of social situations and affects up to 13 percent of Americans and Europeans. Most people never receive treatment for the disorder. For those who do, medication is the more accessible treatment because there is a shortage of trained psychotherapists.

The findings of the study, a network meta-analysis that collected and analyzed data from 101 clinical trials comparing multiple types of medication and talk therapy, are published online Sept. 26 in The Lancet Psychiatry…Read More>>

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Sex Trafficking Of Australian Children. Yes It Happens. But Here’s What We Can Do…

Source By: Melinda Tankard Reist via SMH Good Weekend Guide

This last weekend, the Good Weekend Guide featured the story of a 38-year-old Carrie Bailee who at the age of 9 was sold into a pedophile ring by her father.

The article sent shivers across the country. How could a 9-year-old be subjected to such horror? Why did her school not pick this up? Or other parents? The survivor Carrie herself posed the very same questions.While Carrie’s torture happened in Canada, we cannot dismiss it, as the same exploitation of our children is happening here in Australia.

My work brings me into contact every week with stories of Australian children who are sold for sex by their parents or family members; at-risk children who are preyed on by gangs; young teenage girls who are being forced into prostitution; and children being exploited to enrich the billion-dollar child pornography industry…Read More>>

LIMITED tickets available for important film screening of ‘PLAYGROUND': The Child Sex Trade In America

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